Describe the basic structure of the hip joint including bones, ligaments and muscles.

An 80 year old woman presents to the ER with her daughter who reports finding her mother on the floor of her bathroom. The elderly woman lives alone and was found by her daughter when she did not answer the phone for 24 hours. The patient presents with mild confusion and has difficulty stating her name, age and medical history. She screams when her right lower extremity is touched or moved.

 1. Describe the basic structure of the hip joint including bones, ligaments and muscles. 

2. Why is it a good idea to order an x-ray for this patient? What do you expect the x-ray to show? 

3. The daughter reports that her mother has no cognitive issues and is upset about her present confusion. What might explain the reason for her acute confusion? What would you expect tests to show about her electrolyte levels? 

4. What would you specifically like to know about the patient’s medical history that could have contributed to the present clinical problem?